Context: In most ethnicities at least a quarter of all cases with diabetes is assumed to be undiagnosed. Screening for diabetes using saliva has been suggested as an effective approach to identify affected individuals. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify a noninvasive metabolic marker of type 2 diabetes in saliva. Design and Setting: In a case-control study of type 2 diabetes, we used a clinical metabolomics discovery study to screen for diabetes-relevant metabolic readouts in saliva, using blood and urine as a reference. With a combination of three metabolomics platforms based on nontargeted mass spectrometry, we examined 2178 metabolites in saliva, blood plasma, and urine samples from 188 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 181 controls of Arab and Asian ethnicities. Results: We found a strong association of type 2 diabetes with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in saliva (P = 3.6 × 10-13). Levels of 1,5-AG in saliva highly correlated with 1,5-AG levels in blood and inversely correlated with blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These findings were robust across three different non-Caucasian ethnicities (Arabs, South Asians, and Filipinos), irrespective of body mass index, age, and gender. Conclusions: Clinical studieshavealready established 1,5-AG inbloodasareliablemarkerof short-term glycemic control. Our study suggests that 1,5-AG in saliva can be used in national screening programs for undiagnosed diabetes, which are of particular interest for Middle Eastern countries with young populations and exceptionally high diabetes rates.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical