3D printable magnesium oxide concrete: towards sustainable modern architecture

Abdullah Khalil, Xiangyu Wang, Kemal Celik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reactive magnesium oxide cement (RMC) is gaining increasing attention as a sustainable construction material due to its significantly low carbon footprint during the production as well as the operational phase compared to the conventional Portland cement. Whereas several studies have demonstrated the potential of RMC as a suitable and environment-friendly construction material, this study reports that RMC can be shaped into complex structures via three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. By adding suitable additives and only 3 wt. % of caustic magnesium oxide to the commercially available RMC, appropriate rheology and buildability were achieved that enabled smooth 3D printing of complex structures with precise shape retention. Moreover, the 3D printed RMC exhibited higher densification and nearly twofold the compressive strength as compared to its cast counterpart. Therefore, this work demonstrates the potential of RMC as a 3D printable construction material for sustainable and modern architecture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101145
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
StatePublished - May 2020


  • 3D printing
  • Caustic magnesium oxide
  • Reactive magnesium oxide cement
  • Rheology
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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