3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass, bioglass 45S5, and β-TCP scaffolds for regenerative medicine: A comparative in vitro study

Maria Jesus Pacheco-Vergara, John L. Ricci, Dindo Mijares, Timothy G. Bromage, Sasan Rabieh, Paulo G. Coelho, Lukasz Witek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: While autografts to date remain the 'gold standard' for bone void fillers, synthetic bone grafts have garnered attention due to their favorable advantages such as ability to be tailored in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Bioactive glass (BG), an inorganic material, has the capacity to form a strong bond with bone by forming a bone-like apatite surface, enhancing osteogenesis. Coupled with additive manufacturing (3D printing) it is possible to maximize bone regenerative properties of the BG. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), BG 45S5, and compare to β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) based scaffolds; test cell viability and osteogenic differentiation on human osteoprogenitor cells in vitro. METHODS: MBG, BG 45S5, and β-TCP were fabricated into colloidal gel suspensions, tested with a rheometer, and manufactured into scaffolds using a 3D direct-write micro-printer. The materials were characterized in terms of microstructure and composition with Thermogravimetric Analyzer/Differential Scanning Calorimeter (TGA/DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Mattauch-Herzog-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MH-ICP-MS). RESULTS: Scaffolds were tested for cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation using human osteoprogenitor cells. Osteogenic media was used for differentiation, and immunocytochemistry for osteogenic markers Runx-2, Collagen-I, and Osteocalcin. The cell viability results after 7 days of culture yielded significantly higher (p < 0.05) results in β-TCP scaffolds compared to BG 45S5 and MBG groups. CONCLUSION: All materials expressed osteogenic markers after 21 days of culture in expansion and osteogenic media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)439-458
Number of pages20
JournalBio-Medical Materials and Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2023


  • 3D printing
  • bioglass 45S5
  • in vitro,osteogenic differentiation
  • mesoporous bioactive glass
  • scaffolds
  • β-TCP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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