4 Modifications of Polymeric Membranes by Incorporating Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

Law Yong Ng, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


The. invention. of. membrane. technology,. including. microfiltration.(MF),. ultrafiltration.(UF),. nanofiltration.(NF),. and. reverse. osmosis.(RO),. has. caused. a. progressive. development. in. various. fields,. such. as. water. purification,. gas. separation,. biotechnology,. and. fuel. cell. technology.. However,. the. most. important. limiting. factor. or. disadvantage. of. membrane. technology. is. fouling.. In. the. membrane. technology. field,. fouling. of. the. membrane. refers. to. the. accumulation. of. undesired. materials. on. the. membrane. surface.. Fouling. materials. are. usually. composed. of. living. organisms. or. their. derivatives.(called. biofouling).(Lee. et. al.. 2007b;. Kang. et. al.. 2004;. Subramani. and. Hoek. 2010). and. nonliving. substances.(called. inorganic. fouling)..
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMembrane Modification: Technology and Applications
PublisherCRC Press Boca Raton, FL, USA
StatePublished - Jun 9 2012


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