The. invention. of. membrane. technology,. including. microfiltration.(MF),. ultrafiltration.(UF),. nanofiltration.(NF),. and. reverse. osmosis.(RO),. has. caused. a. progressive. development. in. various. fields,. such. as. water. purification,. gas. separation,. biotechnology,. and. fuel. cell. technology.. However,. the. most. important. limiting. factor. or. disadvantage. of. membrane. technology. is. fouling.. In. the. membrane. technology. field,. fouling. of. the. membrane. refers. to. the. accumulation. of. undesired. materials. on. the. membrane. surface.. Fouling. materials. are. usually. composed. of. living. organisms. or. their. derivatives.(called. biofouling).(Lee. et. al.. 2007b;. Kang. et. al.. 2004;. Subramani. and. Hoek. 2010). and. nonliving. substances.(called. inorganic. fouling)..
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Membrane Modification: Technology and Applications|
|Publisher||CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, USA|
|State||Published - Jun 9 2012|
Ng, L. Y., Wahab Mohammad, A., & Hilal, N. (2012). 4 Modifications of Polymeric Membranes by Incorporating Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. In Membrane Modification: Technology and Applications (pp. 77-118). CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, USA.