A cocaine high-risk situations questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties

Elizabeth Michalec, William R. Zwick, Peter M. Monti, Damaris J. Rohsenow, Selene Varney, Raymond S. Niaura, David B. Abrams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although high-risk situations have been identified for alcoholism, opiate abuse, and smoking, further research is needed to identify high-risk situations for cocaine abuse. A 233-item Cocaine High-Risk Situations Survey was developed based on a comprehensive literature review and was administered to 179 cocaine users in treatment. Situations that occurred infrequently or that were not often associated with cocaine use were eliminated and the remaining 89 items were factor analyzed using half the sample with confirmatory factor analysis on the remainder of the sample. Only one factor was found for frequency of cocaine use in these situations. The 21 items with high factor loadings and a diverse range of content were retained for subsequent analyses and renamed the Cocaine High-Risk Situations Questionnaire (CHRSQ). Reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of this scale were demonstrated. Frequency of alcohol use in the same situations was not significantly related to cocaine use and abuse, supporting discriminant validity. The findings suggest that the frequency of ongoing cocaine use is not determined by specific situations. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-391
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of substance abuse
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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