A cross-scale framework for evaluating flexibility values of battery and fuel cell electric vehicles

Ruixue Liu, Guannan He, Xizhe Wang, Dharik Mallapragada, Hongbo Zhao, Yang Shao-Horn, Benben Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Flexibility has become increasingly important considering the intermittency of variable renewable energy in low-carbon energy systems. Electrified transportation exhibits great potential to provide flexibility. This article analyzed and compared the flexibility values of battery electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles for planning and operating interdependent electricity and hydrogen supply chains while considering battery degradation costs. A cross-scale framework involving both macro-level and micro-level models was proposed to compute the profits of flexible EV refueling/charging with battery degradation considered. Here we show that the flexibility reduction after considering battery degradation is quantified by at least 4.7% of the minimum system cost and enlarged under fast charging and low-temperature scenarios. Our findings imply that energy policies and relevant management technologies are crucial to shaping the comparative flexibility advantage of the two transportation electrification pathways. The proposed cross-scale methodology has broad implications for the assessment of emerging energy technologies with complex dynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number280
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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