Sequential and persistent activity models are two prominent models of short-term memory in neural circuits. In persistent activity models, memories are represented in persistent or nearly persistent activity patterns across a population of neurons, whereas in sequential models, memories are represented dynamically by a sequential activity pattern across the population. Experimental evidence for both models has been reported previously. However, it has been unclear under what conditions these two qualitatively different types of solutions emerge in neural circuits. Here, we address this question by training recurrent neural networks on several short-term memory tasks under a wide range of circuit and task manipulations. We show that both sequential and nearly persistent solutions are part of a spectrum that emerges naturally in trained networks under different conditions. Our results help to clarify some seemingly contradictory experimental results on the existence of sequential versus persistent activity-based short-term memory mechanisms in the brain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas