We present new scalable algorithms and a new implementation of our kernel-independent fast multipole method (Ying et al. ACM/IEEE SC '03), in which we employ both distributed memory parallelism (via MPI) and shared memory/streaming parallelism (via GPU acceleration) to rapidly evaluate two-body non-oscillatory potentials. On traditional CPU-only systems, our implementation scales well up to 30 billion unknowns on 65K cores (AMD/CRAY-based Kraken system at NSF/NICS) for highly non-uniform point distributions. On GPU-enabled systems, we achieve 30x speedup for problems of up to 256 million points on 256 GPUs (Lincoln at NSF/NCSA) over a comparable CPU-only based implementations. We achieve scalability to such extreme core counts by adopting a new approach to scalable MPI-based tree construction and partitioning, and a new reduction algorithm for the evaluation phase. For the sub-components of the evaluation phase (the direct- and approximate-interactions, the target evaluation, and the source-to-multipole translations), we use NVIDIA's CUDA framework for GPU acceleration to achieve excellent performance. To do so requires carefully constructed data structure transformations, which we describe in the paper and whose cost we show is minor. Taken together, these components show promise for ultrascalable FMM in the petascale era and beyond.