A Novel Intraoperative Method to Optically Assess Perfusion During Percutaneous Interventions of the Lower Extremity

Matthew C. Smith, Alessandro Marone, Youngwan Kim, Hyun K Kim, Andreas Hielscher, Danielle Bajakian

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract


Objectives: Up to one-quarter of below knee amputation patients undergo an open amputation prior to definitive closure. However, the
need for a guillotine amputation typically signifies a rapid decline in clinical course. In published studies, guillotine amputations are associated with increased mortality. Therefore, identification of factors that result
in these failure to rescue patients prior to the deterioration is vitally
important. This study sought to examine the prevalence of time delays
and specialty referrals in guillotine amputation patients.
Methods: All patients who required a major lower extremity guillotine
amputation at a single Veterans Affairs Hospital over a 10-year period
were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, comorbid
conditions, and time between wound identification, specialty referrals,
and amputation were calculated.
Results: We identified 76 patients who underwent an open amputation
at or above the ankle level between 2008 and 2019. Ninety-two percent
of patients had seen a primary care doctor through the Veterans Affairs
system a median of 104 days prior to their amputation. These patients
had a median of 30 days between wound identification and amputation.
Excluding those without wounds and those who underwent amputation
within the same hospital encounter as their wound identification, the
median wound duration was 135 days. Fifty-seven percent (29/51) of the
patients whose wounds were identified prior to their acute presentation
were evaluated by podiatry with an average delay of 20 days (median, 0.5
days). Fifty-one percent of patients were evaluated by vascular within an
average of 75 days (median, 11.5 days) from their wound diagnosis. Fiftynine percent of patients were seen by both services. Sixty patients had
diabetes mellitus but only 19 (32%) had been evaluated by an endocrinologist. Average hemoglobin bA1C among diabetics was 8.5 g/dL (range,
4.5-13.7 g/dL).
Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients who underwent guillotine amputation had a wound that was identified prior to their acute presentation.
However, over 40% of patients were not evaluated by podiatry and
one-half were not evaluated by vascular during the course of their wound
care. Additionally, nearly 80% of patients had diabetes but only one-third
of these patients were followed by endocrinology. This study identifies
room for improvement in the provision of appropriate an
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - 2020


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