A Panorama of Artificial and Computational Intelligence in Games

Georgios N. Yannakakis, Julian Togelius

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This paper attempts to give a high-level overview of the field of artificial and computational intelligence (AI/CI) in games, with particular reference to how the different core research areas within this field inform and interact with each other, both actually and potentially. We identify ten main research areas within this field: NPC behavior learning, search and planning, player modeling, games as AI benchmarks, procedural content generation, computational narrative, believable agents, AI-assisted game design, general game artificial intelligence and AI in commercial games. We view and analyze the areas from three key perspectives: 1) the dominant AI method(s) used under each area; 2) the relation of each area with respect to the end (human) user; and 3) the placement of each area within a human-computer (player-game) interaction perspective. In addition, for each of these areas we consider how it could inform or interact with each of the other areas; in those cases where we find that meaningful interaction either exists or is possible, we describe the character of that interaction and provide references to published studies, if any. We believe that this paper improves understanding of the current nature of the game AI/CI research field and the interdependences between its core areas by providing a unifying overview. We also believe that the discussion of potential interactions between research areas provides a pointer to many interesting future research projects and unexplored subfields.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number6855367
    Pages (from-to)317-335
    Number of pages19
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Dec 2015


    • Artificial intelligence
    • computational intelligence
    • games

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Software
    • Control and Systems Engineering
    • Artificial Intelligence
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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