The shortage of clean water sources and increase of demand for fresh water have become as major global challenges not only in industries but also inhuman life. Meanwhile, membrane technology has been extensively noticed due to high separation efficiency, energy-saving and environmentally-friendly characteristic. So, development of new membrane is a vital step in advancing of membrane application in water-treatment. This paper presents a comprehensive review on development of high-performance nanofiltration membrane based on nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Application of new nanomaterials has enabled fabrication of NF-membranes with improved separation properties for pollutants removal from water. Recognizing that conventional membranes are not necessarily suitable for industrial applications and/or process intensifications many attempts were made recently to use of nanomaterials into NF-membranes, aiming to overcome trade-off relationship between flux/selectivity and to improve their stability. So, development of new structured nanomaterial with desirable properties is one of most crucial research topics for membrane researchers. Accordingly, an overview on different methods to design of advanced nanomaterial presented that allow us to overcome their inherent problems in membranes fabrication such as agglomeration, defects formation, insufficient pores’ tuning, poor active sites and anti-fouling properties; however, selection of appropriate nanomaterials is a challenge of utmost difficulty. Various types of nanomaterials such as zeolites, carbon based, framework (MOF/ZIF/COF), nano-biopolymers and special nanoparticles such as SFNPs, SFNCs, POSS, ZCPs, and nickel hydroxide nanosheet are presented and their roles in NF-transport are discussed as well as strategies for surface modification of nanoparticles to promoting their surface charges density. Moreover, fabrication methods of nano enhanced NF-membranes including layer by layer assembly, hollow fiber spinning, electrospinning of nanofibers, construction of thin-film nanocomposite besides blending, co-polymerization; cross-linking and grafting techniques are discussed. A proper view for selection of appropriate nanoparticles in membrane fabrication is offered while considering types of pollutants to be removed.
- Advanced nano-structured materials
- Heavy metals/Salts/Dyes/Organic materials removal
- High-performance nanofiltration membrane
- Water treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)