A primer on hardware security: Models, methods, and metrics

Masoud Rostami, Farinaz Koushanfar, Ramesh Karri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The multinational, distributed, and multistep nature of integrated circuit (IC) production supply chain has introduced hardware-based vulnerabilities. Existing literature in hardware security assumes ad hoc threat models, defenses, and metrics for evaluation, making it difficult to analyze and compare alternate solutions. This paper systematizes the current knowledge in this emerging field, including a classification of threat models, state-of-the-art defenses, and evaluation metrics for important hardware-based attacks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6860363
Pages (from-to)1283-1295
Number of pages13
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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