Purpose: The goal of partial gland ablation (PGA) is to eradicate focal lesions of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) with minimal adverse impact on functional outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the performance of 18F-Fluciclovine PET imaging for detection of prostate cancer following PGA. Materials and Methods: Subjects 2 years following primary partial gland cryoablation (PPGCA) were invited to participate in an IRB-approved study providing they met the following inclusion criteria: a single reported mpMRI region of interest (ROI) concordant with biopsy Gleason Grade Group (GGG) < 4, no gross extra-prostatic extension on mpMRI, and no GGG > 1 or GGG 1 with a core length > 6 mm on contralateral systematic biopsy. 18F-Fluciclovine PET MRI imaging of the prostate was performed followed by in and out-of-field biopsies. Results: Twenty-seven men who met eligibility criteria participated in the prospective study. In-field and out-of-field csPCa recurrence rate was 7.4% and 22.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of mpMRI and PET imaging did not reach performance to reliably inform who should undergo prostate biopsy. Conclusion: At 2 years following PPGCA, the rate of in-field csPCa was exceedingly low indicating a limited role for imaging to inform in-field biopsy decisions. The csPCa detection rate of out-of-field recurrence was 22% which provides an opportunity for imaging to inform out-of-field biopsy decisions. Based on our findings, 18F-Fluciclovine PET MRI cannot be used to inform who should undergo out-of-field prostate biopsy at 2 years following PPGCA.
- Focal therapy
- PET imaging
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging