Background: Few prospective studies have evaluated the influence of arsenic methylation capacity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: We evaluated the association of arsenic exposure from drinking water and arsenic methylation capacity with CVD risk. Method: We conducted a case-cohort study of 369 incident fatal and nonfatal cases of CVD, including 211 cases of heart disease and 148 cases of stroke, and a subcohort of 1,109 subjects randomly selected from the 11,224 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Results: The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for all CVD, heart disease, and stroke in association with a 1-SD increase in baseline well-water arsenic (112 μg/L) were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.30), 1.20 (95%1.04, 1.38), and 1.08 (95%0.90,respectively. aHRs for the second and third tertiles of percentage urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) relative to the lowest tertile, respectively, were 1.27 (95%0.85, 1.90) and 1.55 (95%1.08, 2.23) for all CVD, and 1.65 (95%1.05, 2.60) and 1.61 (95%1.04, 2.49) for heart disease specifically. The highest versus lowest ratio of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to MMA was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CVD (aHR = 0.54; 95%0.34, 0.85) and heart disease (aHR =95%0.33, 0.88). There was no significant association between arsenic metabolite indices and stroke risk. The effects of incomplete arsenic methylation capacity-indicated by higher urinary MMA% or lower urinary DMA%-with higher levels of well-water arsenic on heart disease risk were additive. There was some evidence of a synergy of incomplete methylation capacity with older age and cigarette smoking. Conclusions: Arsenic exposure from drinking water and the incomplete methylation capacity of arsenic were adversely associated with heart disease risk.
- Arsenic methylation capacity
- Cardiovascular disease
- Case-cohort study
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis