A review of climate change, mitigation and adaptation

S. Vijayavenkataraman, S. Iniyan, Ranko Goic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Global climate change is a change in the long-term weather patterns that characterize the regions of the world. Scientists state unequivocally that the earth is warming. Natural climate variability alone cannot explain this trend. Human activities, especially the burning of coal and oil, have warmed the earth by dramatically increasing the concentrations of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere. The more of these gases humans put into the atmosphere, the more the earth will warm in the decades and centuries ahead. The impacts of warming can already be observed in many places, from rising sea levels to melting snow and ice to changing weather patterns. Climate change is already affecting ecosystems, freshwater supplies, and human health. Although climate change cannot be avoided entirely, the most severe impacts of climate change can be avoided by substantially reducing the amount of heat-trapping gases released into the atmosphere. However, the time available for beginning serious action to avoid severe global consequences is growing short. This paper reviews assessing of such climate change impacts on various components of the ecosystem such as air, water, plants, animals and human beings, with special emphasis on economy. The most daunting problem of global warming is also discussed. This paper, further reviews the mitigation measures, with a special focus on carbon sequestration and clean development mechanism (CDM). The importance of synergy between climate change mitigation and adaptation has been discussed. An overview of the relationship between economy and emissions, including Carbon Tax and Emission Trading and the policies are also presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)878-897
Number of pages20
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Carbon sequestration
  • Clean development mechanism
  • Climate change
  • Emission trading
  • Global warming
  • Mitigation and adaptation
  • Policies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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