A stable and accurate scheme for solving the Stefan problem coupled with natural convection using the Immersed Boundary Smooth Extension method

Jinzi Mac Huang, Michael J. Shelley, David B. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The dissolution of solids has created spectacular geomorphologies ranging from centimeter-scale cave scallops to the kilometer-scale “stone forests” of China and Madagascar. Mathematically, dissolution processes are modeled by a Stefan problem, which describes how the motion of a phase-separating interface depends on local concentration gradients, coupled to a fluid flow. Simulating these problems is challenging, requiring the evolution of a free interface whose motion depends on the normal derivatives of an external field in an ever-changing domain. Moreover, density differences created in the fluid domain induce self-generated convecting flows that further complicate the numerical study of dissolution processes. In this contribution, we present a numerical method for the simulation of the Stefan problem coupled to a fluid flow. The scheme uses the Immersed Boundary Smooth Extension method to solve the bulk advection-diffusion and fluid equations in the complex, evolving geometry, coupled to a θ-L scheme that provides stable evolution of the boundary. We demonstrate 3rd-order temporal and pointwise spatial convergence of the scheme for the classical Stefan problem, and 2nd-order temporal and pointwise spatial convergence when coupled to flow. Examples of dissolution of solids that result in high-Rayleigh number convection are numerically studied, and qualitatively reproduce the complex morphologies observed in recent experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110162
JournalJournal of Computational Physics
Volume432
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2021

Keywords

  • Dissolution
  • Fluid-structure interaction
  • Immersed boundary
  • Melting
  • Shape dynamics
  • Stefan problem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Numerical Analysis
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics

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