A State of the Science on HIV Prevention over 40 Years among Black and Hispanic/Latinx Communities

S. Raquel Ramos, Laron E. Nelson, Sandra Gracia Jones, Zhao Ni, Rodman E. Turpin, Carmen J. Portillo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


We present a state of the science on HIV behavioral prevention interventions in Black and Hispanic/Latinx communities. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) highlight the early documented underlying social and political barriers that constrained interventions to prevent new HIV infections; (b) address the structural inequities in HIV prevention and treatment; and (c) describe the need for increasing HIV multilevel prevention interventions that support greater HIV testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake. To address HIV prevention, multilevel interventions that address individual, structural, and social level components have demonstrated more sustainable outcomes. Implications for research and clinical practice include (a) updating antiquated curricula in nursing, medicine, and public health that perpetuate racial, structural-level inequities and (b) increasing the pipeline for Black and Hispanic/Latinx persons to pursue research or clinical-focused doctorate degrees.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-263
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021


  • Behavioral interventions
  • HIV
  • racism
  • review
  • sexual and gender minorities
  • Humans
  • African Americans
  • Male
  • Culturally Competent Care
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Trust
  • Social Class
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
  • Cultural Competency
  • Healthcare Disparities/ethnology
  • HIV Infections/ethnology
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Adult
  • Delivery of Health Care/ethnology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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