A Survey of Power System State Estimation Using Multiple Data Sources: PMUs, SCADA, AMI, and Beyond

Gang Cheng, Yuzhang Lin, Ali Abur, Antonio Gomez-Exposito, Wenchuan Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


State estimation (SE) is indispensable for the situational awareness of power systems. Conventional SE is fed by measurements collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. In recent years, available data sources have been greatly enriched with the deployment of phasor measurement units (PMUs), advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), etc. The integration of multiple data sources provides unprecedented opportunities for enhancing the performance of SE, but also presents major challenges to resolve, including optimal multi-type-sensor co-placement, multiple reporting rates and asynchronization, diverse types of measured quantities, correlations between measurements, integration of online and historical data sources, and system and measurement uncertainties. This paper outlines the state of the art and research opportunities in this area by providing a comprehensive literature review and extensive discussions. It starts by presenting the motivations and challenges, followed by a summary of existing data sources for SE in power systems. Subsequently, for both transmission system (static and dynamic) and distribution system SE, existing methods are systematically reviewed and categorized based on the addressed challenges. Interesting attempts of using novel measurements in SE are also studied. Finally, the paper concludes by providing a detailed discussion on the remaining research gaps and future research directions to be explored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1129-1151
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • State estimation
  • advanced metering infrastructure
  • multiple data sources
  • phasor measurement unit
  • power system measurement
  • situational awareness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science


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