A systematic review of in vitro retrograde obturation materials

Joanna N. Theodosopoulou, Richard Niederman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this review was two-fold: (a) to determine which retrograde obturation material(s) best prevents dye/ink penetration in vitro; and (b) to determine whether in vitro results agree with in vivo results. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify in vitro studies published between January 1966 and October, week 4, 2003, conducted on human teeth, and published in English, German, or French language, testing the resistance to retrograde penetration of retrograde filling materials. The MEDLINE search identified 278 published articles. Of those, 115 studies examined the resistance to penetration of various retrograde filling materials, in vitro. Thirty-four studies met all the inclusion and validity criteria. The results indicate that, beyond 10 days in vitro, the most effective retrofilling materials, when measured by dye/ink penetration are: composites > glass ionomer cement > amalgam > orthograde gutta-percha > EBA. The results of these in vitro studies are not congruent with in vivo study results, suggesting a need to re-evaluate the clinical validity and importance of in vitro studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-349
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of endodontics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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