A virtual-source emission-diffusion I-V model for ultra-thin black phosphorus field-effect transistors

Elahe Yarmoghaddam, Nazila Haratipour, Steven J. Koester, Shaloo Rakheja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we develop an analytic model based on the theory of virtual-source emission-diffusion (VS-ED) to describe ambipolar current conduction in ultrathin black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs). Unlike the VS model which is strictly applicable to quasiballistic devices, the VS-ED model can be applied to long-channel devices with drift-diffusive transport. The model comprehends the in-plane band structure anisotropy in BP, as well as the asymmetry in electron and hole current conduction characteristics. The model also includes the effect of Schottky-type source/drain contact resistances, which are voltage-dependent and can significantly limit current conduction in the on-state in BP FETs. Model parameters are extracted using measured data of back-gated BP transistors with gate lengths of 1000 nm and 300 nm with BP thicknesses of 7.3 nm and 8.1 nm, and for the temperature range 180-298 K. Compared to previous BP models that are validated only for room temperature and near-equilibrium bias conditions (low drain-source voltage), we demonstrate an excellent agreement between the model and data over a broad range of bias and temperature values. The model is also validated against numerical technology computer-aided design data of back- and top-gated BP transistors with a channel length of 300 nm and a thickness of 8.1 nm. The model is implemented in Verilog-A, and the capability of the model to handle both dc and transient circuit simulations is demonstrated using SPECTRE. The model not only provides physical insight into technology-device interaction in BP transistors but can also be used to design and optimize BP-based circuits using a standard hierarchical circuit simulator.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number165706
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 28 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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