Accelerating integration of tobacco use treatment in the context of lung cancer screening: Relevance and application of implementation science to achieving policy and practice

Donna Shelley, Vivian Hsing Chun Wang, Kathryn Taylor, Randi Williams, Benjamin Toll, Alana Rojewski, Kristie L. Foley, Nancy Rigotti, Jamie S. Ostroff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Based on the findings from the National Lung Screening Trial, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening (LCS) among high-risk adults. Approximately 54% of individuals seeking LCS report current cigarette smoking. Effective smoking cessation interventions, offered at the time of LCS, enhances the health benefits of screening that are attributable to reductions in lung cancer overall and tobacco-related mortality. Considering these data, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) 2015 decision to cover LCS with LDCT required that radiology imaging facilities make tobacco cessation interventions available for people who smoke. In February 2022, CMS reversed their 2015 coverage requirement for delivering tobacco use treatment at the time of LDCT; CMS retained the requirement for counseling during the shared decision-making visit prior to the exam. The policy change does not diminish the importance of offering high-quality tobacco cessation services in conjunction with routine LDCT for LCS. However, LCS programs face a range of barriers to implementing tobacco use treatment in their settings. As a result, implementation has lagged. Closing the "evidence to practice" gap is the focus of implementation science, a field that offers a set of rigorous methods and a systematic approach to identifying and overcoming contextual barriers to implementing evidence-based guidelines in a range of clinical settings. In this paper, we describe how implementation science frameworks and methods can be used to help guide LCS programs in their efforts to integrate tobacco use treatment and discuss policy changes needed to further facilitate the delivery of TUT as an essential component of the LCS process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1076-1083
Number of pages8
JournalTranslational Behavioral Medicine
Volume12
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 21 2022

Keywords

  • Implementation science
  • Lung cancer screening
  • Tobacco cessation
  • Tobacco use treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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