CASE: A 69-year-old woman underwent revision total knee arthroplasty for patellar component aseptic loosening. The periprosthetic tissue demonstrated histologic features of an adaptive immune response (aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion [ALVAL]). No particles of corrosion debris were identified. The inflammation seemed to be associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) particles added as a bone cement radio-opacifier. CONCLUSION: The factors responsible for the adaptive immune response cannot be determined with certainty; however, this is the first reported case of ALVAL associated with ZrO2-containing bone cement. Previous reports describing ALVAL around failed total knee prostheses have not included observations about the type of contrast material added to cement.
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