Adaptive Wave Reconstruction Through Regulated-BMFLC for Transparency-Enhanced Telerobotics Over Delayed Networks

Navid Feizi, Rajni V. Patel, Mehrdad R. Kermani, S. Farokh Atashzar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bilateral telerobotic systems have attracted a great deal of interest during the last two decades. The major challenges in this field are the transparency and stability of remote force rendering, which are affected by network delays causing asynchrony between the actions and the corresponding reactions. In addition, the overactivation of stabilizers further degrades the fidelity of the rendered force field. In this article, a real-time frequency-based delay compensation approach is proposed to maximize transparency while reducing the activation of the stabilization layer. The algorithm uses a regulated bound-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner to extract the dominant frequency of force waves. The estimated weights are used in conjunction with the relatively phase-lead harmonic kernels to reconstruct the signal and generate a compensated wave to reduce the effect of the delay. The reconstructed force will then pass through a modulated time-domain passivity controller to guarantee the stability of the system. We will show that the proposed technique will reduce the force-tracking error by 40% and the activation of the stabilizer by 79%. It is shown, for the first time, that through the utilization of online adaptive frequency-based prediction, the asynchrony between transmitted waves through delayednetworks can be significantly mitigated while stability can be guaranteed with less activation of the stabilization layer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2928-2942
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Robotics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022


  • Adaptive filters
  • stability
  • telerobotics
  • transparency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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