Adaptor protein complex 2-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and related gene activities, are a prominent feature during maturation stage amelogenesis

Rodrigo S. Lacruz, Steven J. Brookes, Xin Wen, Jaime M. Jimenez, Susanna Vikman, Ping Hu, Shane N. White, S. Petter Lyngstadaas, Curtis T. Okamoto, Charles E. Smith, Michael L. Paine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real-time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are upregulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP complex 2 (AP-2) is the most upregulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts, with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also upregulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1); cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68); ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2); ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2); chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7); and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistologic data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain showed upregulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor-regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data together define an endocytotic pathway likely used by ameloblasts to remove the enamel matrix during enamel maturation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)672-687
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume28
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2013

Keywords

  • AMELOGENESIS
  • CLATHRIN
  • EMDOGAIN
  • ENAMEL
  • ENDOCYTOSIS
  • ENDOSOMES
  • LYSOSOMES
  • pH HOMEOSTASIS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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