The purpose of the study was to determine the moderating role of baseline levels of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on parent- and child-level outcomes following the Caring in Chaos behavioral parent training intervention at immediate post-intervention and follow-up assessment. One-hundred sixty-one children between the ages of 3–9 (Mean age = 7.6; 73% male) with parental concerns of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were randomly assigned to the Caring in Chaos behavioral parent training intervention, a task-shifted intervention delivered by a volunteer workforce across 12 community-based settings in Denmark, or to a wait-list control condition. Parent report of parenting behavior, sense of competence, stress, depressive symptoms as well as child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and child noncompliance were collected at baseline, immediate post-intervention and at follow-up assessment points. Analyses indicated no moderating effect of baseline attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on parent- and child-outcomes, with no to large effects at post-treatment with maintenance of effects at follow-up assessment. The results of these analyses suggest that the Caring in Chaos behavioral parent training intervention can be utilized with young children with varying levels of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. These findings further support that community-based interventions delivered by nonprofessionals may serve as a beneficial option to increase availability and access to behavioral parent training for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
- ADHD, Parent training
- Community-based, Paraprofessional
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Life-span and Life-course Studies