Introduction: Our team conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (DUET) that compared the effectiveness of three theory-driven, implementation strategies on dental provider adherence to tobacco dependence treatment guidelines (TDT). In this paper we describe the process of adapting the implementation strategies to the local context of participating dental public health clinics in New York City. Methods: Eighteen dental clinics were randomized to one of three study arms testing several implementation strategies: Current Best Practices (CBP) (i.e. staff training, clinical reminder system and Quitline referral system); CBP + Performance Feedback (PF) (i.e. feedback reports on provider delivery of TDT); and CBP + PF + Pay-for-Performance (i.e. financial incentives for provision of TDT). Through an iterative process, we used Stirman's modification framework to classify, code and analyze modifications made to the implementation strategies. Results: We identified examples of six of Stirman's twelve content modification categories and two of the four context modification categories. Content modifications were classified as: tailoring, tweaking or refining (49.8%), adding elements (14.1%), departing from the intervention (9.3%), loosening structure (4.4%), lengthening and extending (4.4%) and substituting elements (4.4%). Context modifications were classified as those related to personnel (7.9%) and to the format/channel (8.8%) of the intervention delivery. Common factors associated with adaptations that arose during the intervention included staff changes, time constraints, changes in leadership preferences and functional limitations of to the Electronic Dental Record. Conclusions: This study offers guidance on how to capture intervention adaptation in the context of a multi-level intervention aimed at implementing sustainable changes to optimize TDT in varying public health dental settings.
- Smoking cessation
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