An Electrochemical Biochip for Measuring Low Concentrations of Analytes with Adjustable Temporal Resolutions

Kae Dyi You, Edoardo Cuniberto, Shao Cheng Hsu, Bohan Wu, Zhujun Huang, Xiaochang Pei, Davood Shahrjerdi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Electrochemical micro-sensors made of nano-graphitic (NG) carbon materials could offer high sensitivity and support voltammetry measurements at vastly different temporal resolutions. Here, we implement a configurable CMOS biochip for measuring low concentrations of bio-analytes by leveraging these advantageous features of NG micro-sensors. In particular, the core of the biochip is a discrete-time ∆Σ modulator, which can be configured for optimal power consumption according to the temporal resolution requirements of the sensing experiments while providing a required precision of ≈ 13 effective number of bits. We achieve this new functionality by developing a design methodology using the physical models of transistors, which allows the operating region of the modulator to be switched on-demand between weak and strong inversion. We show the application of this configurable biochip through in-vitro measurements of dopamine with concentrations as low as 50 nM and 200 nM at temporal resolutions of 100 ms and 10 s, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9140359
Pages (from-to)903-917
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Biochip
  • electrochemical sensing
  • lab-on-A-chip
  • system-on-A-chip
  • voltammetry
  • Nanostructures/chemistry
  • Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation
  • Semiconductors
  • Dopamine/analysis
  • Lab-On-A-Chip Devices
  • Equipment Design
  • Graphite/chemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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