Objective. Single-trial electroencephalography (EEG) classification is a promising approach to evaluate the cognitive experience associated with haptic feedback. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which are among the most widely used deep learning techniques, have demonstrated their effectiveness in extracting EEG features for the classification of different cognitive functions, including the perception of vibration intensity that is often experienced during human-computer interaction. This paper proposes a novel CNN ensemble model to classify the vibration-intensity from a single trial EEG data that outperforms the state-of-the-art EEG models. Approach. The proposed ensemble model, named SE NexFusion, builds upon the observed complementary learning behaviors of the EEGNex and TCNet Fusion models, exhibited in learning personal as well generic neural features associated with vibration intensity. The proposed ensemble employs multi-branch feature encoders corroborated with squeeze-and-excitation units that enables rich-feature encoding while at the same time recalibrating the weightage of the obtained feature maps based on their discriminative power. The model takes in a single trial of raw EEG as an input and does not require complex EEG signal-preprocessing. Main results. The proposed model outperforms several state-of-the-art bench-marked EEG models by achieving an average accuracy of 60.7% and 61.6% under leave-one-subject-out and within-subject cross-validation (three-classes), respectively. We further validate the robustness of the model through Shapley values explainability method, where the most influential spatio-temporal features of the model are counter-checked with the neural correlates that encode vibration intensity. Significance. Results show that SE NexFusion outperforms other benchmarked EEG models in classifying the vibration intensity. Additionally, explainability analysis confirms the robustness of the model in attending to features associated with the neural correlates of vibration intensity.
- deep learning
- machine learning
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience