An experimental study of cultural identity goal striving in German–Turkish biculturals

Johannes T. Doerflinger, Erkan Poyraz, Rabia Özen, Katarzyna Byrka, Peter M. Gollwitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We explore motivational processes stemming from bicultural identity goals of being Turkish and being German by investigating the effect of identity goal incompleteness versus completeness in the two identity goals on the use of multifinal means to self-symbolize German–Turkish cultural identity goals. Individuals incomplete in either or both identity goals were more likely than individuals complete in both identity goals to engage in multifinal self-symbolizing via social media activity (Experiment 1) and helping (Experiment 2). Incompleteness regarding the two identity goals had an additive effect on effort and elicited distinct patterns of subjectively experienced incompleteness for German and Turkish cultural identity goals (Experiment 2). These findings offer new insights relevant for symbolic self-completion theory and goal systems theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-197
Number of pages13
JournalSocial Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Bicultural identity
  • Goal systems
  • Multifinality
  • Symbolic self-completion theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • General Psychology


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