An Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Trivium Cipher and Random Substitution

Yousef Alghamdi, Arslan Munir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Traditional encryption algorithms are not suitable and computationally efficient for encrypting multimedia data due to the large size and high redundancy inherent in multimedia data. In this paper, a new image encryption algorithm based on nonlinear-feedback shift registers is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on the Trivium cipher and has multiple encryption rounds. A key schedule produces the round keys from the initial secret key, and the Trivium cipher generates the key-streams for the bit-level substitution for each round utilizing the round key and an initialization vector (IV). Each round of the proposed algorithm consists of three steps, pixel-based row permutation, pixel-based column permutation, and bit-level substitution. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is reliably secure and outperforms the contemporary image encryption algorithms in terms of quality, efficiency, and security on most of the image encryption metrics. Furthermore, the low complexity of the proposed Trivium-based image encryption algorithm demonstrates high potential for deployment in real-time applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number713
JournalSN Computer Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Image encryption
  • Permutation
  • Substitution
  • Trivium cipher

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Artificial Intelligence


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