## Abstract

This paper presents an intra-body power transfer (IBPT) system that can deliver power greater than 1 mW across an on-body distance of 160 cm. A system simulation model is built for the characterization of the channel and optimization of the power transfer. Our system analysis and experimental validation demonstrate that 1 MHz is an optimal carrier frequency for IBPT in terms of power delivered to the load (PDL) and power efficiency (PE). Prototype TX and RX boards were built, and an IC was fabricated in a 180-nm CMOS process for the RX. The proposed RX IC consists of a voltage doubler (VD) and a charge pump (CP) to obtain a sufficiently high voltage conversion ratio (VCR). Among various rectifier topologies, the VD is the optimal topology for the power receiver front-end because the parasitic ground coupling capacitances, which inevitably exist in the IBPT system, act as an inherent input-coupling capacitance for the VD. The implemented VD utilizes a dynamic <inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">$V_{TH}$</tex-math></inline-formula> compensation (DVC) for its diode components. Compared to the conventional static <inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">$V_{TH}$</tex-math></inline-formula> compensation (SVC), DVC in the VD reduces the reverse leakage current of the diode, thus maximizing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and VCR. In addition, the PDL is enhanced by inserting an inductor on the TX board. It reduces the backward-path impedance without increasing the RX volume, boosting the PDL by up to 9.9 times compared to the PDL without the inductor insertion. The proposed IBPT system delivers up to 178.8 <inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\mu$</tex-math></inline-formula>W of power at 11.7% of maximum power efficiency with 3.3-V DC output voltage and even 1.385 mW of power with the inductor insertion, supporting various biomedical wearable sensors, such as ECG sensor modules.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 1-15 |

Number of pages | 15 |

Journal | IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems |

DOIs | |

State | Accepted/In press - 2022 |

## Keywords

- AC-DC converter
- Batteries
- Body-area network (BAN)
- body-channel communication (BCC)
- body-channel model
- Capacitance
- Couplings
- energy harvesting (EH)
- Impedance
- Integrated circuit modeling
- intra-body power transfer (IBPT)
- Load modeling
- power delivered to the load (PDL)
- power efficiency (PE)
- voltage doubler
- wearable devices
- Wearable sensors
- wireless power transfer (WPT)

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Biomedical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering