Analog Approximate-FFT 8/16-Beam Algorithms, Architectures and CMOS Circuits for 5G Beamforming MIMO Transceivers

Viduneth Ariyarathna, Arjuna Madanayake, Xinyao Tang, Diego Coelho, Renato J. Cintra, Leonid Belostotski, Soumyajit Mandal, Theodore S. Rappaport

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Emerging millimeter-wave (mmW) wireless systems require beamforming and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) approaches in order to mitigate path loss, obstructions, and attenuation of the communication channel. Sharp mmW beams are essential for this purpose and must support baseband bandwidths of at least 1 GHz to facilitate higher system capacity. This paper explores a baseband multi-beamforming method based on the spatial Fourier transform. Approximate computing techniques are used to propose a low-complexity fast algorithm with sparse factorizations that neatly map to integer $W/L$ ratios in CMOS current mirrors. The resulting approximate fast Fourier transform (FFT) can thus be efficiently realized using CMOS analog integrated circuits to generate multiple, parallel mmW beams in both transmit and receive modes. The paper proposes both 8- and 16-point approximate-FFT algorithms together with circuit theory and design information for 65-nm CMOS implementations. Post-layout simulations of the 8-point circuit in Cadence Spectre provide well-defined mmW beam shapes, a baseband bandwidth of 2.7 GHz, a power consumption of 70 mW, and a dynamic range >42.2 dB. Preliminary experimental results confirm the basic functionality of the 8-beam circuit. Schematic-level analysis of the 16-beam I/Q version show worst-case and average side lobe levels of -10.2 dB and -12.2 dB at 1 GHz bandwidth, and -9.1 dB and -11.3 dB at 1.5 GHz bandwidth. The proposed multi-beam architectures have the potential to reduce circuit area and power requirements while meeting the bandwidth requirements of emerging 5G baseband systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8353192
Pages (from-to)466-479
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • 5G multi-beam arrays
  • Analog beamforming
  • low-complexity algorithms
  • multi-beams

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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