Analysis of LSB based image steganography techniques

R. Chandramouli, N. Memon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


There have been many techniques for hiding messages in images in such a manner that the alterations made to the image are perceptually indiscernible. However, the question whether they result in images that are statistically indistinguishable from untampered images has not been adequately explored. In this paper we look at some specific image based steganography techniques and show that an observer can indeed distinguish between images carrying a hidden message and images which do not carry a message. We derive a closed form expression of the probability of detection and false alarm in terms of the number of bits that are hidden. This leads us to the notion of steganographic capacity, that is, how many bits can we hide in a message without causing statistically significant modifications? Our results are able to provide an upper bound on the this capacity. Our ongoing work relates to adaptive steganographic techniques that take explicit steps to foil the detection mechanisms. In this case we hope to show that the number of bits that can be embedded increases significantly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationIEEE International Conference on Image Processing
Number of pages4
StatePublished - 2001
EventIEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) - Thessaloniki, Greece
Duration: Oct 7 2001Oct 10 2001


OtherIEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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