Analysis of ordinal outcomes with longitudinal covariates subject to missingness

Melody S. Goodman, Yi Li, Anne M. Stoddard, Glorian Sorensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We propose a mixture model for data with an ordinal outcome and a longitudinal covariate that is subject to missingness. Data from a tailored telephone delivered, smoking cessation intervention for construction laborers are used to illustrate the method, which considers as an outcome a categorical measure of smoking cessation, and evaluates the effectiveness of the motivational telephone interviews on this outcome. We propose two model structures for the longitudinal covariate, for the case when the missing data are missing at random, and when the missing data mechanism is non-ignorable. A generalized EM algorithm is used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1040-1052
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Statistics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


  • longitudinal covariates
  • missingness
  • ordinal outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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