This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the possible impacts of different penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) on voltage profiles in low-voltage secondary distribution networks. Detailed models of all system components are utilized in a study that performs hundreds of time-domain simulations of large networked distribution systems using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). DGs are allocated in a probabilistic fashion to account for the uncertainties of future installations. The main contribution of this paper is the determination of the maximum amount of DG that secondary distribution networks can withstand without exhibiting undervoltage and overvoltage problems or unexpected load disconnections. This information is important for network planning engineers to facilitate the extension of the maximum penetration limit. The results show that depending on the location, type, and size of the installed DGs, small amounts of DG may cause overvoltage problems. However, large amounts of DG may not cause any voltage problems when properly selected.
- Distributed generation (DG)
- low-voltage secondary networks
- maximum penetration of DG
- voltage quality
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering