Argon-based atmospheric pressure plasma enhances early bone response to rough titanium surfaces

Paulo G. Coelho, Gabriela Giro, Hellen S. Teixeira, Charles Marin, Lukas Witek, Van P. Thompson, Nick Tovar, Nelson R.F.A. Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigated the effect of an Argon-based atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) surface treatment operated chairside at atmospheric pressure conditions applied immediately prior to dental implant placement in a canine model. Surfaces investigated comprised: rough titanium surface (Ti) and rough titanium surface + Argon-based APP (Ti-Plasma). Surface energy was characterized by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method and chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Six adult beagles dogs received two plateau-root form implants (n = 1 each surface) in each radii, providing implants that remained 1 and 3 weeks in vivo. Histometric parameters assessed were bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskall-Wallis (95% level of significance) and Dunn's post-hoc test. The XPS analysis showed peaks of Ti, C, and O for the Ti and Ti- Plasma surfaces. Both surfaces presented carbon primarily as hydrocarbon (C - C, C - H) with lower levels of oxidized carbon forms. The Ti-Plasma presented large increase in the Ti (+11%) and O (+16%) elements for the Ti- Plasma group along with a decrease of 23% in surface-adsorbed C content. At 1 week no difference was found in histometric parameters between groups. At 3 weeks significantly higher BIC (>300%) and mean BAFO (>30%) were observed for Ti-Plasma treated surfaces. From a morphologic standpoint, improved interaction between connective tissue was observed at 1 week, likely leading to more uniform and higher bone formation at 3 weeks for the Ti-Plasma treated implants was observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1901-1906
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Volume100 A
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2012


  • atmospheric pressure plasma plasma
  • endosseous implant
  • osseointegration
  • surface treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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