ART Adherence Among Malawian Youth Enrolled in Teen Clubs: A Retrospective Chart Review

Kaitlyn McBride, Julie Parent, Kondwani Mmanga, Mackenzie Chivwala, Mike H. Nyirenda, Alan Schooley, James B. Mwambene, Kathryn Dovel, Eric Lungu, Kelvin Balakasi, Risa M. Hoffman, Corrina Moucheraud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To improve outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents, the Malawi Ministry of Health is supporting scale-up of “Teen Clubs,” a facility-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery model. Teen Clubs are monthly ART clinics for adolescents (10–19 years old) that provide clinical services and peer psychosocial support. This paper assesses ART adherence among Teen Club attendees in Malawi. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records and Teen Club attendance data on 589 HIV-positive adolescents at 16 Partners in Hope (PIH)—Extending Quality Improvement for HIV/AIDS in Malawi (EQUIP) supported facilities across Malawi, from January to June of 2017, who attended at least two Teen Club sessions. Multi-level logistic regression models were used to examine the role of gender and age on optimal ART adherence (≥ 95% based on pill count) among HIV-positive adolescents enrolled in Teen Clubs. The median age of adolescents in this sample was 14 years, and 47% were male. Older adolescent males (15–19 years) were 64% more likely to achieve ≥ 95% ART adherence (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31, p ' 0.01) compared to younger (10–14 years) males. The effect of age on adherence was smaller and not significant among females (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96–1.94, p = 0.08). In the full model including males and females, older adolescence was associated with higher odds of optimal adherence (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16–1.90, p ' 0.01). These results reinforce the need for age-specialized programming for adolescents, and future research should evaluate this in achieving optimal ART adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2629-2633
Number of pages5
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • Adherence
  • Adolescents
  • Antiretroviral therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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