As the twig is bent - the biology and socialization of gender-roles in women

M. Beth Casey, Mary M. Brabeck, Ronald L. Nuttall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study supports the view that biological predisposition interacts with perceived parental influences to affect cross-gender role identity. Geschwind and colleagues have identified two patterns of brain organization (anomalous and standard dominance) assessed through individual and familial handedness. Anomalous dominant women who perceived their parents as definitely giving them permission for cross-gender behavior demonstrated high masculine/low feminine characteristics on the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The cross-gender role identity in this group differed significantly from the traditional gender role identity found in all other groups of females (including anomalous dominant women whose parents were perceived as less permissive and the women with standard dominance reporting both styles of parenting).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-246
Number of pages10
JournalBrain and cognition
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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