Asian flushing: Genetic and sociocultural factors of alcoholism among East Asians

Haeok Lee, Sun S. Kim, Kwang Soo You, Wanju Park, Jin Hyang Yang, Minjin Kim, Laura L. Hayman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Alcoholuse can lead to a cascade of problems such as increased chances of risky behavior and negative health consequences, including alcoholic liver disease and upper gastric and liver cancer. Ethanol is metabolized mainly by 2 major enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Genetic variations of genes encoding the 2 enzymes are very common among East Asians but relatively rare for most other populations. Facial flushing and other physical discomforts after alcohol drinking triggered by accumulation of acetaldehyde through defective genes for ADH and ALDH have been reported. Approximately 40% of East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) show facial flushing after drinking alcohol, known as "Asian flush," which is characterized by adverse reactions on alcohol drinking in individuals possessing the fasting metabolizing alleles for ADH, ADH1B∗2, and ADH1C∗1, and the null allele for ALDH and ALDH2∗2. Alcoholism is determined not only by the genetic deficiency but also by behaviors that involve complex interactions between genetic and sociocultural factors. The purpose of this article was to provide nurses with the most current information about genetic and sociocultural influences on alcoholism and alcohol-related health problems specifically for East Asians and implications of this knowledge to nursing practice. The physiological phenomenon of genes and genetics in relation to alcohol metabolism in this special population is emphasized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-336
Number of pages10
JournalGastroenterology Nursing
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Gastroenterology


Dive into the research topics of 'Asian flushing: Genetic and sociocultural factors of alcoholism among East Asians'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this