Association Between Copayment Amount and Filling of Medications for Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors in Patients With Heart Failure

Amrita Mukhopadhyay, Samrachana Adhikari, Xiyue Li, John A. Dodson, Ian M. Kronish, Binita Shah, Maggie Ramatowski, Rumi Chunara, Sam Kozloff, Saul Blecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) reduce mortality and hospitalization for patients with heart failure. However, relatively high copayments for ARNI may contribute to suboptimal adherence, thus potentially limiting their benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study within a large, multi-site health system. We included patients with: ARNI prescription between November 20, 2020 and June 30, 2021; diagnosis of heart failure or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%; and available pharmacy or pharmacy benefit manager copayment data. The primary exposure was copayment, categorized as $0, $0.01 to $10, $10.01 to $100, and >$100. The primary outcome was prescription fill nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered <80% over 6 months. We assessed the association between copayment and nonadherence using multivariable logistic regression, and nonbinarized proportion of days covered using multivariable Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and neighborhood-level covariates. A total of 921 patients met inclusion criteria, with 192 (20.8%) having $0 copayment, 228 (24.8%) with $0.01 to $10 copayment, 206 (22.4%) with $10.01 to $100, and 295 (32.0%) with >$100. Patients with higher copayments had higher rates of nonadherence, ranging from 17.2% for $0 copayment to 34.2% for copayment >$100 (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for copayment of $10.01 to $100 (odds ratio [OR], 1.93 [95% CI, 1.15– 3.27], P=0.01) or >$100 (OR, 2.58 [95% CI, 1.63– 4.18], P<0.001), as compared with $0 copayment. Similar associations were seen when assessing proportion of days covered as a proportion. CONCLUSIONS: We found higher rates of not filling ARNI prescriptions among patients with higher copayments, which persisted after multivariable adjustment. Our findings support future studies to assess whether reducing copayments can increase adherence to ARNI and improve outcomes for heart failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere027662
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 20 2022


  • angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor
  • copayment
  • heart failure
  • medication adherence
  • out-of-pocket cost
  • sacubitril-valsartan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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