Association between incarceration and psychotic experiences in a general population sample

Zui Narita, Ai Koyanagi, Hans Oh, Jordan DeVylder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Incarceration of individuals with mental disorders is an important public health topic. While incarceration appears to be associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, to the best of our knowledge, no study has examined the association between incarceration and psychotic experiences (PEs). The present study aimed to examine whether individuals with PEs had higher odds of incarceration among a general population sample using data from Baltimore and New York City (N = 974). We fitted three regression models to examine the association between incarceration and PEs, using hierarchical adjustments for sociodemographic factors, adverse childhood experiences, and neighborhood disruption. The odds ratio (OR) for incarceration was attenuated with inclusion of more covariates in the model but remained statistically significant even at the highest level of adjustment (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.30 to 3.46). Findings were similar when individually examining delusional mood, delusions of reference and persecution, and hallucination. For delusions of control, a significant association was not found in the highest level of adjustment. The present study provides novel information on the association between incarceration and PEs, adjusted for sociodemographic and psychosocial confounders. Taken in the context of prior studies, these data further support the need to address the high prevalence of psychosis across all aspects of the criminal justice system. Future studies should employ longitudinal data and objective outcome measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-117
Number of pages6
JournalSchizophrenia Research
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Epidemiology
  • Jail
  • PEs
  • Prison
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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