Association of Race/Ethnicity-Specific Changes in Antihypertensive Medication Classes Initiated Among Medicare Beneficiaries With the Eighth Joint National Committee Panel Member Report

Calvin L. Colvin, Jordan B. King, Suzanne Oparil, Jackson T. Wright, Gbenga Ogedegbe, April Mohanty, Shakia T. Hardy, Lei Huang, Rachel Hess, Paul Muntner, Adam Bress

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Importance: In December 2013, the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC8) published a recommendation that non-Black adults initiate antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), whereas Black adults initiate treatment with a thiazide-type diuretic or calcium channel blocker. β-Blockers were not recommended as first-line therapy. Objective: To assess changes in antihypertensive medication classes initiated by race/ethnicity from before to after publication of the JNC8 panel member report. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional analysis assessed a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older who initiated antihypertensive medication between 2011 and 2018, were Black (n = 3303 [8.0%]), White (n = 34 943 [84.5%]), or of other (n = 3094 [7.5%]) race/ethnicity, and did not have compelling indications for specific antihypertensive medication classes. Exposures: Calendar year and period after vs before publication of the JNC8 panel member report. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of beneficiaries initiating ACEIs or ARBs and, separately, β-blockers vs other antihypertensive medication classes. Results: In total, 41 340 Medicare beneficiaries (65% women; mean [SD] age, 75.7 [7.6] years) of Black, White, or other races/ethnicities initiated antihypertensive medication and met the inclusion criteria for the present study. In 2011, 25.2% of Black beneficiaries initiating antihypertensive monotherapy did so with an ACEI or ARB compared with 23.7% in 2018 (P = .47 for trend). Among beneficiaries initiating monotherapy, the proportion filling a β-blocker was 20.1% in 2011 and 15.4% in 2018 for White beneficiaries (P < .001 for trend), 14.2% in 2011 and 11.1% in 2018 for Black beneficiaries (P = .08 for trend), and 11.3% in 2011 and 15.0% in 2018 for beneficiaries of other race/ethnicity (P = .40 for trend). After multivariable adjustment and among beneficiaries initiating monotherapy, there was no evidence of a change in the proportion filling an ACEI or ARB before to after publication of the JNC8 panel member report overall (prevalence ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03) or in Black vs White beneficiaries (prevalence ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83-1.12; P = .60 for interaction). Among beneficiaries initiating monotherapy, the proportion filling a β-blocker decreased from before to after publication of the JNC8 panel member report (prevalence ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93) with no differences across race/ethnicity groups (P > .10 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: A substantial proportion of older US adults who initiate antihypertensive medication do so with non-guideline-recommended classes of medication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e2025127
JournalJAMA network open
Volume3
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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