Although cognitive impairment is common among persons with heart failure and negatively impacts self-care, hospitalization, and mortality, the associations between cognitive impairment and insomnia symptoms are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore these associations and examine if they are maintained after adjusting for relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. Guided by the Neurocognitive model of insomnia and sleep and the self-care conceptual model, a cross-sectional data analysis using parametric testing was conducted on the Health and Retirement Study wave 2016. Difficulty initiating sleep and early morning awakening, but not difficulty maintaining sleep were significantly associated with poorer cognitive performance in the bivariate and multivariate analysis. Our results are suggestive of different phenotypes of insomnia symptoms that may have different associations with cognition in persons with heart failure. Further research using objective measurements of insomnia symptoms and detailed neuropsychiatric testing of cognition is needed to confirm this conclusion.
- heart failure
- insomnia symptoms
- sleep initiation and maintenance disorder
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