Osseointegration, the direct functional and structural connection between device and bone is influenced by multiple factors such as implant macrogeometry and surgical technique. This study investigated the effects of osseodensification drilling techniques on implant stability and osseointegration using trabecular metal (TM) and tapered-screw vent (TSV) implants in a low-density bone. Six skeletally mature sheep were used where six osteotomy sites were prepared in each of the ilia, (n = 2/technique: Regular [R] (subtractive), clockwise [CW], and counterclockwise [CCW]). One TM and one TSV implant was subsequently placed with R osteotomy sites prepared using a conventional (subtractive) drilling protocol as recommended by the implant manufacturer for low density bone. CW and CCW drilling sites were subjected to osseodensification (OD) (additive) drilling. Evaluation of insertion torque as a function of drilling technique showed implants subjected to R drilling yielded a significant lower insertion torque relative to samples implanted in OD (CW/CCW) sites (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric analysis shows that the osseodensification demonstrates significantly greater values for bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Histological analysis shows the presence of bone remnants, which acted as nucleating surfaces for osteoblastic bone deposition, facilitating the bridging of bone between the surrounding native bone and implant surface, as well as within the open spaces of the trabecular network in the TM implants. Devices that were implanted via OD demonstrated atemporal biomechanical stability and osseointegration.
- bone tissue engineering and repair
- bone/bone biology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine