Test-based accountability often produces score inflation. Most studies have evaluated inflation by comparing trends on a high-stakes test and a lower stakes audit test. However, Koretz and Beguin (2010) noted weaknesses of audit tests and suggested self-monitoring assessments (SMAs), which incorporate audit items into high-stakes tests. This article reports the first three trials of SMAs, evaluating whether SMAs can detect inflation that had already been documented. The studies were conducted with mathematics tests in three grades. Despite severe conservative biases, the audit component functioned as expected in many of the trials. The difference in performance between nonaudit and audit items was associated with factors that earlier research showed to be related to test preparation and score inflation, such as scoring just below the Proficient cut in the previous year and school poverty. However, a number of null findings underscore the need for additional research into the design of audit items.
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