Automated reassembly of file fragmented images using greedy algorithms

Nasir Memon, Anandabrata Pal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The problem of restoring deleted files from a scattered set of fragments arises often in digital forensics. File fragmentation is a regular occurrence in hard disks, memory cards, and other storage media. As a result, a forensic analyst examining a disk may encounter many fragments of deleted digital files, but is unable to determine the proper sequence of fragments to rebuild the files. In this paper, we investigate the specific case where digital images are heavily fragmented and there is no file table information by which a forensic analyst can ascertain the correct fragment order to reconstruct each image. The image reassembly problem is formulated as a κ-vertex disjoint graph problem and reassembly is then done by finding an optimal ordering of fragments. We provide techniques for comparing fragments and describe several algorithms for image reconstruction based on greedy heuristics. Finally, we provide experimental results showing that images can be reconstructed with high accuracy even when there are thousands of fragments and multiple images involved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-393
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2006


  • File fragmentation
  • Forensics
  • Greedy algorithms
  • Reassembly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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