Automated repair for timed systems

Martin Kölbl, Stefan Leue, Thomas Wies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present algorithms and techniques for the repair of timed system models, given as networks of timed automata (NTA). The repair is based on an analysis of timed diagnostic traces (TDTs) that are computed by real-time model checking tools, such as UPPAAL, when they detect the violation of a timed safety property. We present an encoding of TDTs in linear real arithmetic and use the MaxSMT capabilities of the SMT solver Z3 to suggest a minimal number of possible syntactic repairs of the analyzed model. The suggested repairs include modified values for clock bounds in location invariants and transition guards, adding or removing clock resets, etc. We then present an admissibility criterion, called functional equivalence, which ensures that the proposed repair preserves the functional behavior of the considered NTA. We discuss a proof-of-concept tool called TarTar that we have developed, implementing the repair and admissibility analysis, and give insights into its design and architecture. We evaluate the proposed repair technique on faulty mutations generated from a diverse suite of case studies taken from the literature. We show that TarTar can admissibly repair for 69–88 % of the seeded errors in the considered system models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-169
Number of pages34
JournalFormal Methods in System Design
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Admissibility of repair
  • Automated repair
  • TarTar tool
  • Timed automata

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Hardware and Architecture


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