Objective: To compare predominantly-Black and predominantly-White Maryland areas with similar socioeconomic status to examine the role of both race and socioeconomic status on tobacco outlet availability and tobacco outlet access. Design: Maryland tobacco outlet addresses were geocoded with 2011–2015 American Community Survey sociodemographic data. Two-sample t-tests were conducted comparing the mean values of sociodemographic variables and tobacco outlet density per Census Tract, and spatial lag based regression models were conducted to analyze the direct association between covariables and tobacco outlet density while accounting for spatial dependence between and within jurisdictions. Results: Predominantly-White jurisdictions had lower tobacco outlet availability and access than predominantly-Black jurisdictions, despite similar socioeconomic status. Spatial lag model results showed that median household income and vacant houses had consistent associations with tobacco outlet density across most of the jurisdictions analyzed, and place-based spatial lag models showed direct associations between predominantly-Black jurisdictions and tobacco outlet availability and access. Conclusion: Predominantly-White areas have lower levels of tobacco outlet density than predominantly-Black areas, despite both areas having similar socioeconomic statuses.
- Census Tracts
- Tobacco outlets
- socioeconomic status
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health