Bone regeneration in critical bone defects using three-dimensionally printed β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite scaffolds is enhanced by coating scaffolds with either dipyridamole or BMP-2

Stephanie Ishack, Aranzazu Mediero, Tuere Wilder, John L. Ricci, Bruce N. Cronstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Bone defects resulting from trauma or infection need timely and effective treatments to restore damaged bone. Using specialized three-dimensional (3D) printing technology we have created custom 3D scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) to promote bone repair. To further enhance bone regeneration we have coated the scaffolds with dipyridamole, an agent that increases local adenosine levels by blocking cellular uptake of adenosine. Nearly 15% HA:85% β-TCP scaffolds were designed using Robocad software, fabricated using a 3D Robocasting system, and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. Scaffolds were coated with BMP-2 (200 ng mL−1), dypiridamole 100 µM or saline and implanted in C57B6 and adenosine A2A receptor knockout (A2AKO) mice with 3 mm cranial critical bone defects for 2–8 weeks. Dipyridamole release from scaffold was assayed spectrophotometrically. MicroCT and histological analysis were performed. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) showed significant bone formation and remodeling in HA/β-TCP-dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds when compared to scaffolds immersed in vehicle at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5 per group; p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.05, and p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Histological analysis showed increased bone formation and a trend toward increased remodeling in HA/β-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds. Coating scaffolds with dipyridamole did not enhance bone regeneration in A2AKO mice. In conclusion, scaffolds printed with HA/β-TCP promote bone regeneration in critical bone defects and coating these scaffolds with agents that stimulate A2A receptors and growth factors can further enhance bone regeneration. These coated scaffolds may be very useful for treating critical bone defects due to trauma, infection or other causes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)366-375
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Volume105
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Keywords

  • 3D-printing
  • bone defects
  • dipyridamole
  • hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP)
  • scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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